In Deutch

 

 

 

Heating a home with chimneys

 

Every unit using fuel that produces gases during combustion must have a chimney connected to allow these gases to escape. If the chimney does not function properly, the gases will smother the fire or keep it from burning properly.

A great many heating problems are due to the faulty construction of the chimney.

Modern heating equipment is scientifically designed to operate efficiently, provided it is properly installed and the chimney meets the necessary requirements.

All too frequently, the furnace is blamed when the real cause of the trouble is the chimney.

This seems rather strange when you consider that chimneys have been built for hundreds of years, and the basic requirements for chimney construction are listed in practically every book on the subject of heating.

The fact remains that chimneys are being built today that will not operate because these basic needs are ignored. The annoyance and expense connected with a poorly constructed chimney will eventually have to be borne by the homeowner.

Construction

The best location for the chimney is in the center of the house, to minimize heat loss through the walls of the chimney. A chimney placed on the outside of the house will lose considerable heat. A well-constructed outside chimney will have to be several inches thicker than an inside one to compensate for this loss.

A chimney should run straight up with no angles or bends. Angles will cause resistance to the passage of air and gas through the chimney and thus cut down the draft. They also afford an excellent stop for the accumulation of heavy deposits of soot.

The interior of the chimney should be lined with fire-clay flue lining. This provides not only a smoother surface than can be obtained with either bricks or stones but also a measure of safety. The heat and oils in smoke will eventually cause ordinary mortar to disintegrate, with resulting leakage in the chimney.

There should be a separate flue for each piece of heating equipment. When two or more heating devices are connected to the same flue, they nullify each other's draft. This is Often the reason why coal-burning hot water heaters do not operate as they should. They are connected to the same flue as the main heating system and thus have little or no draft.

The top of the chimney should rise at least three feet above the top of the roof. Branches of trees should not be allowed to extend over the chimney top. Covering the top of the chimney will impair the draft, although it is quite common to see chimneys with caps of one kind or another.

No beams or girders employed in the construction of the house should protrude inside the flue of the chimney. This will have a serious effect on the draft, and is a fire hazard as well.

Stove pipes from other heating equipment should not protrude into the chimney. The end of the stove pipe should be flush with the inside of the flue.

Regular inspection

See that all connections with the chimney, such as stove pipes, are airtight, so that the draft will not be impaired. If there is a clean-out door at the base of the chimney, keep it tightly shut and check from time to time to see that it fits tightly.

A chimney should be inspected and cleaned at regular intervals. This is especially important if very sooty fuels are burned or if the chimney suddenly fails to function properly. You can make a visual inspection of the chimney with a flashlight from the top or with a flashlight and a mirror at the clean-out door in the base.

Be on the lookout for cracks or breaks in the flue lining, loose pieces of flue tile, or large deposits of soot. Check all the masonry around the openings in the chimney where stove pipes enter.

Leaks

To test the chimney for any possible leaks, start a fire in the stove, furnace, or fireplace, and when it is burning well throw on some material that will cause smoke. When the smoke begins pouring from the top of the chimney, cover it with a piece of heavy, wet cloth. This will force the smoke to find some other exit from the chimney, if one exists. In this way, any leaks in the chimney can be easily and quickly located and their location marked with a piece of chalk.

Once the leaks have been located, their size and number will govern what should be done about them. If there are a few small ones, they can be refilled with cement mortar made of 1 part cement to 3 parts fine sand. If, on the other hand, the chimney appears to be in generally poor condition, a chimney expert should be called in to examine the structure carefully and determine whether it can be repaired safely or must be completely rebuilt.

A chimney that leaks is a fire hazard, for a small piece of burning soot could pass through the opening and set fire to the roof or some other inflammable building material.

Cleaning

A straight chimney with a clean-out door at the bottom is relatively easy to clean. To do this, weight a burlap bag with old rags, sawdust, or some other waste material, and lower it into the chimney from the top.

Raise and lower the bag several times, and the soot will fall to the bottom of the chimney where it can be removed with a shovel and hoe. If the chimney serves a fireplace, cover the fireplace opening with a piece of cloth, hung from the mantle, to prevent soot and ashes from entering the room.

Automatic chimney draft regulator
Automatic chimney draft regulator

The draft

The amount of draft a chimney can provide depends on the size of the flue. When a chimney is too small to provide the required draft, it can be improved by having a blower installed. This blower compensates for the lack of flue area by increasing the volume of air passing through the chimney.

The size of the chimney, the size of the blower, and the draft required by the piece of heating equipment, must all be taken into consideration ; consequently, the installation of a blower in a chimney is best left to a heating expert.

Very often, the flue area is too large for a particular piece of heating equipment, or the draft fluctuates widely with the prevailing wind.
This condition makes it very difficult to regulate the fire, because the draft is small at one minute and very great the next. An excellent remedy for this condition is to have an automatic draft regulator installed in the stove pipe.

This regulator is a type of damper which is opened and closed by the suction in the chimney. The regulator is first set to provide the required amount of draft. When the draft starts to increase, the disk of the damper closes far enough to reduce the draft. When the chimney draft decreases, the disk opens wider to compensate for this reduction.

Condensation

In combustion, gas produces a considerable amount of water vapor. As this moisture is in a gaseous state it will flow out of the flue or chimney opening, provided it does not become chilled and thus condense into a liquid. If the chimney is well constructed and holds the heat, the vapor should have no difficulty in escaping, but if the chimney is poorly built or a large section of it is exposed to the wind and weather, the vapor will condense into a liquid.

This liquid contains certain acids which are capable, in time, of soaking through mortar joints and eventually working out of the chimney to damage wall and ceiling decorations. Homes heated with gas where such a condition exists should consult a chimney expert or the local gas company.

There are several methods used to eliminate this trouble, but it takes firsthand knowledge to know which one to select. Be sure you get someone who really understands this field, as many homeowners have paid out large sums to have their chimney rebuilt only to find that the condition still exists.

Gas-fired hot water heaters are often connected into the house chimney with several lengths of metal flue pipe. In some cases this pipe runs right up through an opening in the roof, and provides the necessary escape for the fumes from the burning gas. As a general rule, a long run of metal pipe will not hold the heat very well and in this event there will be condensation of vapors inside the pipe. This moisture may drip back down the pipe and find an exit at the pipe joints.

One simple remedy is to cover the pipe with special paper so that it will hold the heat longer. There is a special type of flue pipe made of materials that are poor heat conductors and this can be used instead of the metal pipe.

Heating a home

Furniture

Heating

  • Boilers
  • Chimneys
  • Coal furnace
  • Condensation
  • Fireplaces
  • Fuel economy
  • Furnace damper
  • Heat loss
  • Home insulating
  • Hot water
  • Insulation
  • Oil burners
  • Maintenance
  • Radiators
  • Regulators
  • Steam heating
  • Thermostat
  • Warm air
  • Winterproofing
  • Wood burning
  • Home Construction

    Painting

    Tools

    Workshop